Definition of Action
In production activities, “action” refers to one specific movement that constitutes an operation behavior.
Definition of Action Analysis
Action analysis can also be said to be the key to excavating actions. Therefore, the work of each process must first be decomposed into “element operations” and “action elements”. At the same time, it is necessary to quantify the number of steps, the distance between parts, and the posture of the body. analysis. This method of analysis is called “action analysis”.
The goal of action analysis
Operators often think that the current work is reasonable. However, we should investigate the actual situation of the actions and behaviors of the homework, and analyze which actions are combined. How does it work. If these actions are not economical. Then we must try to save; if there is an unreasonable phenomenon, then we must try to improve it, if there is an imbalance, we must try to achieve a balance (avoid the imbalance that is sometimes busy and sometimes idle). In this way, it is necessary to perfect the actions from time to time and to develop effective standard work. Therefore, its objectives have the following three points.
- Accurately grasp the order and method of actions of each part of the operator’s body
- It is clear whether there are uneconomical, unbalanced and unreasonable phenomena in the action
- Observe whether the overall movement of the body is balanced
Introduction to Motion Analysis
Most of the movements in the production site are done by hands. Gilbreth subdivided the hand-centered operations (including eye movements) into 17 movements in the early stage of studying movements. marks are marked. He called these movements “action elements” and used them to decompose movements. This analytical method is scientific and effective, and has been widely cited for later generations. Later generations reversed the name of Gilbreth to Therblig to name this analysis method, called Shablick analysis. Shablick analysis can make motion analysis simple and clear and is a basic tool for motion analysis.
Element operation: It is a unit of continuous operation, a series of operations from taking out a component and tool to the end of its installation or use.
Action element: The smallest unit of element operation action, which can be refined to “every gesture of action”.
The quality of motion analysis determines the quality of motion improvement.
Action Analysis Notation
Action analysis – analysis of various types of kinesin
Type 1 kinesin: actions necessary for doing homework
- Empty hand: refers to the movement of the empty hand, with a little activation of the handle or finger. move towards a target. An action before the object has been grabbed. Since there are no items to be transported, it can be called air transport (TransportEmpty). For example: hand reaching for the book, hand reaching for the screw in the material box.Improve direction: a. Shorten the distance; b. Reduce the directional control of hand (finger) movement (eg precise grip).
- Grasping: Controlling objects or tools with the hands or palms, and possibly the handles or buttons for controlling machinery and equipment, often occurs after reaching out and before moving objects. Note, however, that grasping refers to the moment when the item is controlled, and if it is grasped continuously, it is a hold, not a grasp.“Grasping” mainly includes pinching with fingers (grasping in the form of pinching) and holding a tool with the hand (grasping in the form of a grip); Also “grabbing” (contact grasping); such as grasping the blackboard on the table to paint, grasping the screw in the box.Improvement direction: a. Reduce the number of grabs; b. Try to touch as much as possible to make the grabbing action easier; c. Use tools instead of manual grabbing.
- Handling: Move the object or tool by hand from a certain point to another, and the destination is the operation area or the place of placement. Since there are actually transport objects, it can be called TransportLoaded.The basic difference between “empty hand” and “carrying” is that “empty hand” is an action whose purpose is to change the position of body parts. “Handling” is usually the need to withstand gravity. Various loads and reactions such as pressure, tension and friction. Change is the position of the object. Such as moving the book from the shelf to the table, take the screws to the assembly.Improvement direction: a. Shorten the distance and improve the item configuration point; b. Reduce the weight of each move and add auxiliary tools; c. Reduce the direction control or difficulty of moving objects.
- Release: let go of the object or tool held in the hand. Often occurs after moving and holding objects.This is the action of dropping the item. If the finger leaves the object from the moment when all parts are removed, it belongs to this range. The methods of “letting go” include item placement method, item dropping method, and item throwing method. For example, to put the eraser on the table, let go of the eraser.Improvement direction: a. Use automated tools to release hand movements, when people do not have to let go; b. Make letting go as far as possible to continue to the beginning of the next actin.
- Determine the position: place the object or tool in a specific position. Alignment necessarily has a directional control factor that often occurs after moving objects. This range of motion is from the start of positioning to the determination of the position.“Fixed location” is easily confused with “predetermined location”. “Locating” is determining where the relationship is correct, immediately prior to “Combining” and “Using”. For example, set the position before the screw is put into the nut.Improvement direction: a. Use the guiding tool as much as possible to make it automatically aligned and avoid manual adjustment and control; b. Discuss the tolerance of the object so that it is not too difficult to determine its position and waste time.
- Combination: Combining two objects together, often after aligning or moving objects, before letting go.The “positioned” target is inserted into the target, or placed on top of the target. For example, the wrench is fastened on the nut, the pencil tip is placed in the designated position to start writing, and so on. In addition, “combination” also includes the case where more than two actions are assembled, such as inserting the light bulb into the lamp holder and then tightening it, which is the case.Improvement direction: a. Use tools instead of manual assembly as much as possible.
- Use: The use of tools, appliances and devices to achieve a consciously conscious purpose, that is, the so-called use. In addition, when hands, fingers, etc. are used like tools, such as breaking paper with hands, bonding glue with fingers, etc., they can be regarded as “use”. For another example, use a pen to write on paper; use a hole drill to turn holes on a metal plate.Improvement direction: a. Use tools to replace manual work; b. Equipment automation to relieve manual application actions.
- Decomposition: This action is to separate the composition of a certain relationship. Often occurs after grasping, but before moving or letting go.Since the objects are loose and tight, it is inevitable that there will be difficult distinctions in disassembly, such as looseness and tightness.Improvement direction: a. Use tools instead of manual work as much as possible; b. Explore the tightness of items to make decomposition easier.
The Second Type Hinders The First Type Of Action
- Find: Use your fingers or eyes to explore the location of an object or tool. Often happens before crawling. It is often manifested as searching with eyes, searching with hands, and searching with eyes while removing obstacles with hands. Most of this seeking occurs when the object or tool is not positioned.Improvement direction: a. Pre-place parts or tools in a fixed position, and it is easy to obtain in the work area, which is the advantage of 5S; b. Pre-place the parts to be installed in a specially designed container, which can make The machine automatically feeds; c. Make the operating conditions achieve target management and reduce the necessity of searching.
- Choose: Choose one of several similar items. Often happens after reaching, before grabbing. The more similar or smaller the object, the longer the selection. This kind of action is generally manifested in the phenomenon of pushing away obstacles with hands, or lightly grasping several items, and dropping excess items. “Seeking” and “choice” often occur at the same time, and when the difference between the two is not obvious, it can be analyzed as a “choice”.Improvement direction: a. Putting items with the same quality and specifications together, you don’t have to choose again, which is the function of 5S; b. For small items, use automatic tools to assist, and you don’t have to choose hard.
- Inspection: The actions of comparing and inspecting the object with the reference are mostly activities of the eyes, nerves and brain. Often occurs after combination and use, but can also occur after transfer, before combination or application.“Checking” is different from other movements in that it is only analyzed as the movement of “checking” when it occurs independently as a continuation of the hand movement. But that’s not to say the hands are still. When a job is inspected while moving an item by hand, or by touching it, we analyze these activities as hand movements.Improvement direction: a. Review the quality requirements, whether it can be inspected more extensively to reduce the inspection time; b. Use automated inspection instruments and tools to reduce the inspection of personnel; c. Whether the sampling inspection method can be used to reduce the number of inspections.
- Predetermined position: Re-hold the grasped object to keep it in the proper direction and posture for ease of use. This action mostly occurs when precise alignment is required, or when multiple pieces are aligned and used at the same time.“Predetermined location” and “determined location” are easily confused. Usually refers to “adjustment to the applicable orientation”, which occurs after the object has been “grabbed”. For example, the holding posture is changed in order to insert the bolt in the hand into the mounting hole.Improvement direction: a. As far as possible, while moving the object, execute the predetermined position; b. Try to use automated assembly tools, and the machine will align it by itself, so that the predetermined position is not allowed.
- Consideration: Thinking and researching in order to carry out the action of the next step. Often occurs before combination and application, sometimes before and after inspection, or even before seeking.
The third category is actions that are not doing homework
- Maintain: When performing an action with one hand, the object must maintain a specific posture, and the action made at this time is the so-called “maintain”. If both hands act on a target at the same time, it cannot be called “holding”. Even if it is ostensibly “maintained”, it is actually mostly “inevitable delay”. It often occurs after removing or determining the location, while using, combining or disassembling, or while examining and considering.Improvement direction: a. Use fixtures instead of manual work to release the energy of the hand to do another job; b. Use guides to make the object can be processed accurately without holding it.
- Delay: Although the work is interrupted, because other parts of the body or machinery are performing certain actions, one or both hands are idle, waiting for these actions to end – this state is “inevitable delay”. It is a phenomenon that occurs after the work method falls into the above state, and even if it is said to be idle, it is not necessarily a state of doing nothing. It also refers to the state of holding something and performing an unreasonable activity. If improved. “Latency” can often be eliminated.Improvement direction: a. Redesign the operation method, such as man-machine cooperation program, shorten the action time of the machine or other parts of the body, and also reduce the manual waiting time; b. With the help of more automated equipment and tools, make both hands work at the same time.
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